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Parametric tests

A parametric test is a type of statistical test that requires data to be symmetric (or normally distributed), e.g. a t-test. A non-parametric test uses data that are asymmetric, e.g. Mann-Whitney U-Test.


Positionality refers to what we know and believe. It relates to our understanding of ourselves, of who we are and what we bring to our research. For example, when a researcher describes their ‘position’ in relation to their study they may discuss their (possibly conflicting) roles as colleague, researcher, teacher and parent. It is linked […]


Reflexivity draws attention to the researcher, rather than pretending that they they did not influence the research. It involves an examination of how the researcher’s own beliefs, judgments and practices may have influenced the research.

Equalities data

Equalities data refer to all types of disaggregated data used to assess the comparative situation of a specific group at risk of discrimination or exclusion.

Quantitative research

Quantitative research usually emphasises quantification in the collection and analysis of data.

Qualitative research

Qualitative research usually emphasises words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data.

Sub-group analysis

Sub-group analysis involves splitting all the participant data into subsets of participants to make comparisons between them, e.g. males and females.

Disaggregated data

Disaggregated data is data that has been broken down into detailed sub-categories, for example by sex, age, disability. Disaggregated data can reveal inequalities that may not be fully reflected in aggregated data.

Underrepresented groups

The diversity of research participants should reflect the educational community for whose benefit the research is taking place. When this is not the case, some groups are underrepresented


In qualitative research, coding involves breaking down data into component parts, which are given names. In quantitative research, codes are numbers that are assigned to data that are not inherently numerical (e.g. in a questionnaire the answer ‘strongly agree’ is assigned a 5) so that information can be statistically processed.


An organised but informal event to bring teachers together and share practice


In assessment, the degree to which a particular assessment measures what it is intended to measure, and the extent to which proposed interpretations and uses are justified


Virtual Learning Environment – an online system that allows teachers to share resources with students via the internet

Threshold concept

A key concept which, once understood, can transform the student’s perception of the area of study, and without which the student’s learning cannot progress


The processes of applying learning to new situations


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study – a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world


In assessment, the degree to which the outcome of a particular assessment would be consistent – for example, if it were marked by a different marker or taken again


Teaching Assistant – an adult that assists the teacher in the classroom

Spacing effect

The benefit to learning of including gaps between study and revision sessions