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Improving academic resilience and self-efficacy through feedback: Moving from ‘what’ to ‘how’

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ALEXANDRA GREENFIELD, HEAD OF ENGLISH, ST ALBANS HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, UK There is no more valuable resource than time, and there is likely no aspect of teaching that takes disproportionally more time than it has impact than giving ineffective feedback. (Hill, cited in Donarski, 2020, p. 37) Getting feedback ‘right’ is, arguably, one of the most challenging components of teaching. While as educators one of our aims is certainly to ensure the best possible outcomes for our pupils, such a relentless focus on ‘what’ has been achieved can detract from a more productive focus on ‘how’ that has been achieved. Furthermore, in reality, the capacity to do the latter can lead to success in the former. Sadler argues that ‘for students to be able to improve, they must develop the capacity to monitor the quality of their own work during actual production’ (1989, p. 119). In their study of the relationship between self-assessment and self-efficacy, Panadero et al. (2017, p. 76)

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    Author(s): Bill Lucas